Key points to be remembered


         Control is the task of ensuring that the activities are providing the desired results.


         The control process involves:

(a)   Setting the target (criteria).

(b)    Measuring the actual performance.

(c)   Taking the corrective actions.


         There are many prerequisites for developing any controlling system, among them is that the important of:


         Control requires plans, as plans become the standards by which desired actions are measured.


         The basic control processes are:

(a)   The establishment of standards.

(b)    The measurement of performance.

(c)    Comparing measured performance to stated standards.

(d)    Taking corrective action.


         There are many types of control, among them:

(a)   Pre control.

(b)   Con current control.

(c)   Feedback control.


         Pre control or feed-forward control refers to the control that takes place before work is performed.


         Concurrent control refers to the control that takes place as work is being performed.


         Feedback control refers to the control that  concentrates on the past organizational performance.


         Control must be tailored to:

(a)   Plans and positions.

(b)   The individual managers and their responsibilities.

(c)   The needs for efficiency and effectiveness.


         Control should be objective, flexible, and economical.


         There are many barriers to successful controlling:

(a)   Control activities can create an undesirable overemphasis on short-term objectives.

(b)   Control activities can increase employees frustration with their jobs and this in turn will decrease the morale level.

(c)   Control activities can encourage the falsification of reports.

(d)   Control activities can be perceived as the goals of the control process rather than the means by which corrective action is taken.


         The most common methods and techniques for controlling. Among the traditional control devices the budget.


         Among the most non budgetary control devices: the statistical data, the break even point analysis, the operational audit the personal observation.


         The advanced and quantities techniques and devices for control are:

(a)   PERT (program evaluation and review techniques)

(b)   Control through return on investment (ROI)

(c)   Just in time (JIT) system.

(d)   Ratio analysis.

(e)   Management by objectives and appraisal by results.

(f)     Decision Tree analysis.

(g)   Computer aided design (CAD).

(h)   Computer aided manufacturing (CAM).

(i)Total quality management (TQM).