1.2 Planning: Its Meaning, Nature, and Importance


1.2.1 Definition of Planning


There are many definitions for the term “planning,” each person has his/her own ideas concerning the meaning of the term “planning.” Among the most common definitions for this term are:

    · Planning is the process by which an individual or organization decides in advance on some future course of action  (Omran, 2002, p. 68).

    · Planning is the process of determining how the organization can get where it wants to go (Certo, 2000, p. 126).

    · Planning involves selecting from among alternative future courses of actions for the organization as a whole and for every department or section within it. (Cook, Hunsaker, Coffey, 1999, p. 16).